India Travel Guide
India is one of most beautiful countries in world. It is also world famous for food & travel. Rupees is the official currency of my country. Hindi is the national language but peoples can also speak English too. Delhi is the capital. Peoples of india speaks there traditional languages too. During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age.
The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent.The caste system arose during this period, creating a hierarchy of priests, warriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous Peoples who were regarded as impure; and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state-level polities.
On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.
The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.
Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The Mughal state’s economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.
The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India’s economic expansion resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.
Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.
By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts. The East India Company’s control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.
Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India’s colonial period.
By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.
The first organized militant movements were in Bengal, but they later took movement in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service (British India) examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil. The early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal, Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai.
The last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s policy of nonviolence and civil disobedience, and several other campaigns. Nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule.
Poets and writers such as Subramania Bharati, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature, poetry and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics.
B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, and the Indian National Army movement led by Subhashchandra Bose.
After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, during which the East India Company’s Indian Army under Robert Clive defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, the Company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs, and soon afterwards gained administrative rights over the regions of Bengal, Bihar and Midnapur part of Orissa, following the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Company’s direct rule, or under its indirect political control as part a princely state in a subsidiary alliance. The Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First (1845–1846) and Second (1848–49) Anglo-Sikh Wars. English was made the medium of instruction in India’s schools in 1835, and many Indians increasingly disliked British rule.
The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century racist notion of the superiority of Western culture and enlightenment. The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion in the northern and central India against the British East India Company’s rule. It was suppressed and the British government took control of the company.
The conditions of service in the company’s army and cantonments increasingly came into conflict with the religious beliefs and prejudices of the sepoys. On 3 June 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of British India into India and Pakistan. With the speedy passage through the British Parliament of the Indian Independence Act 1947, at 11:57 on 14 August 1947.
Pakistan was declared a separate nation, and at 12:02, just after midnight, on 15 August 1947, India also became a sovereign and democratic nation. Eventually, 15 August became the Independence Day for India, due to the ending of British rule over India. On that 15 August, both Pakistan and India had the right to remain in or remove themselves from the British Commonwealth. In 1949, India decided to remain in the commonwealth.
Indian currency is Rupees so before visiting India must select a registered authority to exchange your money in to Indian Rupees. In local shops mostly in small cities & villages you have to pay cash payments. In big cities & shopping mall you may able to pay with master card, debit card, visa cards, credit debit, net-banking, direct deposits, cheques, paypal, paytm etc. To check the current exchange rate must visit yahoo, bing or google.
All tourist entering india must need a valid visa & passport but not from Bhutan & Nepal but must posses identification documents. South Africans of indian origin are free from the requirement of visas provided they possess valid certificates or passports of identity endorsed for india. Tourist who arrived without visas are not allowed to enter here. They may be given Landing Permits upto 72 hours by the immigration authorities at the port provided they are travelling on confirmed tickets. Our Government issue below types of visas.
This visa issued to foreigners who are working in India, for an organization registered in India.
It is just issue for 15 days. For applying this visa need 3 passport size photographs.
It issued to those persons those wish to visit for purpose of business, professional etc. For applying this visa need 3 passport size photographs, full particulars of the purpose of visit, either a sponsorship letter from the applicant’s status of the application or return / onwards ticket. This visa is issue & valid just as Tourist Visa.
This Visa is valid for 3 months , tourist must arrive with in 6 months of the date of the issue. A tourist can extend his stay for future period of 3 months if he applies to the foreigner’s regional registration offices at delhi, kolkata & mumbai or in any of the offices of the superintendent of police in district headquarters.
An arrival card, also known as an incoming passenger card, departure card or landing card is a legal document used by immigration authorities of many countries to obtain information about incoming passenger not provided by the passenger’s passport such as health, criminal record, where they will be staying.
The 1st department the tourist comes across is the Health. Cholera inoculation is not required for entry into india but it is recommended for personal protection.
It is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches. Symptoms typically improve within five days. In about 15% of people within a day of improving, the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin.If this occurs, the risk of bleeding and kidney problems is also increased.
It is caused by the yellow fever virus, a 40– to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae.It was the first illness shown to be transmissible by filtered human serum and transmitted by mosquitoes, by Walter Reed around 1900.The positive-sense, single-stranded RNA is around 11,000 nucleotides long and has a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein.
Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural and seven nonstructural proteins the enumeration corresponds to the arrangement of the protein coding genes in the genome. Minimal yellow fever virus (YFV) 3’UTR region is required for stalling of the host 5′-3′ exonuclease XRN1. The UTR contains PKS3 pseudoknot structure which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral requirement for subgenomic flavivirus RNA production.
The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral pathogenicity. Yellow fever belongs to the group of hemorrhagic fevers.The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surface via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle. Inside the endosome, the decreased pH induces the fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope.
The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing a rearrangement of the 90 homodimers to 60 homotrimers.
After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called vesicle packets. At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature form and is therefore denoted as prM (precursor M) and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, which cleaves prM to M.
This releases E from the complex which can now take its place in the mature, infectious virion. It is mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, but other mostly Aedes mosquitoes such as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) can also serve as a vector for this virus.
Like other arboviruses which are transmitted by mosquitoes, the yellow fever virus is taken up by a female mosquito when it ingests the blood of an infected human or another primate. Viruses reach the stomach of the mosquito, and if the virus concentration is high enough, the virions can infect epithelial cells and replicate there.
From there, they reach the haemocoel (the blood system of mosquitoes) and from there the salivary glands. When the mosquito next sucks blood, it injects its saliva into the wound, and the virus reaches the bloodstream of the bitten person. Transovarial and transstadial transmission of the yellow fever virus within A. aegypti, that is, the transmission from a female mosquito to her eggs and then larvae, are indicated.
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease. is most frequently a clinical diagnosis, made on the basis of symptoms and the infected person’s whereabouts prior to becoming ill. Mild courses of the disease can only be confirmed virologically. Since mild courses of yellow fever can also contribute significantly to regional outbreaks, every suspected case of yellow fever (involving symptoms of fever, pain, nausea and vomiting six to 10 days after leaving the affected area) is treated seriously.
The Yellow Fever Initiative, launched by WHO in 2006, vaccinated more than 105 million people in 14 countries in West Africa. No outbreaks were reported during 2015. The campaign was supported by the GAVI Alliance, and governmental organizations in Europe and Africa. According to the WHO, mass vaccination cannot eliminate yellow fever because of the vast number of infected mosquitoes in urban areas of the target countries, but it will significantly reduce the number of people infected. As for other flavivirus infections, no cure is known for yellow fever.
Hospitalization is advisable and intensive care may be necessary because of rapid deterioration in some cases. Different methods for acute treatment of the disease have been shown not to be very successful; passive immunization after the emergence of symptoms is probably without effect. Ribavirin and other antiviral drugs, as well as treatment with interferons, do not have a positive effect in patients.
Asymptomatic treatment includes rehydration and pain relief with drugs such as paracetamol. Acetylsalicylic acid should not be given because of its anticoagulant effect, which can be devastating in the case of internal bleeding that can occur with yellow fever.The evolutionary origins of yellow fever most likely lie in Africa, with transmission of the disease from nonhuman primates to humans.
The virus is thought to have originated in East or Central Africa and spread from there to West Africa. As it was endemic in Africa, the natives had developed some immunity to it. When an outbreak of yellow fever would occur in an African village where colonists resided, most Europeans died, while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza.
This phenomenon, in which certain populations develop immunity to yellow fever due to prolonged exposure in their childhood, is known as acquired immunity.The virus, as well as the vector A. aegypti, were probably transferred to North and South America with the importation of slaves from Africa, part of the Columbian Exchange following European exploration and colonization.The first definitive outbreak of yellow fever in the New World was in 1647 on the island of Barbados.
An outbreak was recorded by Spanish colonists in 1648 in the Yucatán Peninsula, where the indigenous Mayan people called the illness xekik. In 1685, Brazil suffered its first epidemic, in Recife. The first mention of the disease by the name “yellow fever” occurred in 1744. McNeill argues that the environmental and ecological disruption caused by the introduction of sugar plantations created the conditions for mosquito and viral reproduction, and subsequent outbreaks of yellow fever.
Deforestation reduced populations of insectivorous birds and other creatures that fed on mosquitoes and their eggs.Sugar curing house, 1762: Sugar pots and jars on sugar plantations served as breeding place for larvae of A.aegypti, the vector of yellow fever.Although yellow fever is most prevalent in tropical-like climates, the northern United States were not exempted from the fever. The first outbreak in English-speaking North America occurred in New York City in 1668, and a serious one afflicted Philadelphia in 1793.
English colonists in Philadelphia and the French in the Mississippi River Valley recorded major outbreaks in 1669, as well as those occurring later in the 18th and 19th centuries. Visitors leaving for countries which impose health restrictions on arrivals from India are required to be in possession of a valid certification. At immigration counters visitors visas passports are checked.
It is for those tourist & non tourist who have nothing dutiable or prohibited / restricted.
It is for those tourist those have restricted goods.
Tourist are generally required to make oral baggage declaration in respect of baggage & foreign currency in their possession.
Duty Free Articles:
Tourist entitled to concessions under the “Tourist Baggage Rule 1978” are allowed to import temporarily duty free articles.
Any dutiable article imported a passenger as his baggage may be left in bond with the customs authorities pending re-export at the time of departure if he / she does not want to pay duty on it.
Bonafide unaccompanied baggage arriving in India after the arrival of the passenger if it was in his / her possession abroad & was shipped by sea with in 1 month of dispatched by air within a fortnight of the passenger’s arrival in India is allowed free of duty subject to the conditions & limitations laiddown in the rules.
Where we stay & eat in India ?
Jammu and Kashmir
- Four Seasons Hotel Mumbai, Mumbai
- Shalini Palace, Kolhapur
- Taj Mahal Palace and Tower, Mumbai
- Watson’s Hotel, Mumbai
- Bissau Palace Hotel
- Devigarh, Udaipur
- Lake Palace, Udaipur
- Lalgarh Palace, Bikaner
- Laxmi Niwas Palace, Bikaner
- LMB Hotel, Jaipur
- Rambagh Palace, Jaipur
- Laxmi Niwas Palace, Bikaner
- Roopangarh Fort, Roopangarh
- Samode Palace, Samode
- Shiv Niwas Palace, Udaipur
- Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jodhpur
- Accord Metropolitan, Chennai
- Bungalow on the Beach, Tharangambadi
- Crowne Plaza Chennai Adyar Park, Chennai
- Fisherman’s Cove, Chennai
- The Grand Chola, Chennai
- Hilton, Chennai
- Hotel d’Angeli’s, Chennai
- Hyatt Regency, Chennai
- JW Marriott, Chennai
- Kohinoor Asiana, Chennai
- Le Royal Meridien, Chennai
- The Leela Palace, Chennai
- My Fortune, Chennai
- The Park, Chennai
- Park Hyatt, Chennai
- Radisson Blu City Centre, Chennai
- Radisson Blu Hotel, Chennai
- The Raintree Hotel Anna Salai, Chennai
- The Raintree Hotel, St Mary’s Road, Chennai
- Residency Towers, Chennai
- Savera Hotel, Chennai
- Taj Club House, Chennai
- Taj Connemara, Chennai
- Taj Coromandel, Chennai
- Trident Hilton, Chennai
- Westin, Chennai
- The Elgin Hotel, Darjeeling
- The Oberoi Grand, Kolkata
- Great Eastern Hotel, Kolkata
- Windamere Hotel, Darjeeling