Delhi which is the capital of india is world famous for food and travel. Rashtrapati Bhavan is one of major tourist attraction here in delhi. It is the home & office of president of india. It is located at the Western end of Rajpath. Rashtrapati Bhavan may refer to only the 340-room main building. It including reception halls, guest rooms and offices, also called the mansion. It may also refer to the entire 130-hectare Presidential Estate.It includes huge presidential gardens, large open spaces. Rashtrapati Bhavan also includes
residences of bodyguards and staff, stables, other offices and utilities within its perimeter walls. In terms of area, it is one of the largest residences of a head of state in the world. This decision to build a residence in New Delhi for the British Viceroy was taken after it was decided during the Delhi Durbar in December 1911.
History of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Edwin Landseer Lutyens was the architecture of rashtrapati bhavan. Her
design is grandly classical overall. Lutyens and Baker, who had been assigned to work on Viceroy’s House and the Secretariats, began on friendly terms.
Baker had been assigned to work on the two secretariat buildings which were in front of Viceroy’s House. The original plan was to have Viceroy’s House on the top of Raisina Hill, with the secretariats lower down.
In 1916 the Imperial Delhi committee dismissed Lutyens’s proposal to alter the gradient. Lutyens thought Baker was more concerned with making money and pleasing the government, rather than making a good architectural design.
Lutyens traveled between India and England almost every year for twenty years and worked on the construction of Viceroy’s House in both countries. From 26-jan-1950 to till now it’s knows as Rashtrapati Bhavan. Which means the home & office of indian president.
The layout plan of the building is designed around a massive square with multiple courtyards and open inner areas within. The plan called for two wings; one for the Viceroy and residents. Another for guests.
The residence wing is a separate four-storey house in itself, with its own court areas within. This wing was so large. That the last Indian governor-general, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, opted to live in the smaller guest wing, a tradition followed by subsequent presidents. The original residence wing is now used primarily for state receptions and as a guest wing for visiting heads of state.
Features of Rashtrapati Bhavan
The dome, in the middle, reflects both Indian and British styles. In middle a tall copper-faced dome, surmounting a very tall drum in several sections. It
stands out from the rest of the building. The dome is exactly in the middle of the diagonals between the four corners of the building. The dome is more than twice the height of the building itself. The height of the dome was increased by Lord Hardinge in the plan of the building in 1913. The dome combines classical and Indian styles. Lutyens said the design evolved from that of the Pantheon in Rome. It has little resemblance to that, either in the curve of the dome or the high drum; both have an oculus in the centre.
The exterior of the dome was modelled partly after the early Buddhist stupas, such as that at Sanchi, which it resembles far more in the exterior profile. There is a Buddhist-style “railing” design around the section of the drum below the dome. The dome is supported by evenly spaced columns which form a porch with an open area between. In the New Delhi summer heat haze this gives an impression of the dome being afloat. Workers began to form the reinforced concrete shell of the outer dome at the beginning of 1929. The last stone of the dome was laid on 6 April 1929.
Darbar & Ashoka Halls
Rashtrapati Bhavan has many halls which are used for state functions and other purposes. Two of them, Durbar Hall and Ashoka Hall, are the most prominent. Durbar Hall is situated directly under the double-dome of the main building. Known as the “Throne Room” before independence, it had two separate thrones for the Viceroy and Vicereine. Presently, a single high chair for the President is kept here under a 2-ton chandelier hanging from a height of 33 m by a 23 m long rope.
It is said that the line thus drawn on the floor perfectly divides the mansion into two equal parts. It houses a 5th century Buddha statue from the Gupta period. This ancient Buddha statue is in a perfect straight line to the Gupta-period Bull placed outside and onto the India Gate at the end of Rajpath. The elevation of Raisina Hills is so much that the top of the India Gate lies at the same level as the feet of the Buddha’s statue placed in the Durbar Hall.
The interior of this room and almost all the rooms of the palace are bare, relying on stonework and shapes to show austerity rather than intricate decoration. Ashoka Hall is a rectangular room of 32×20 m and the most beautiful of all the halls. The Persian painting on its ceiling depicts a royal hunting expedition led by King Fateh Ali Shah of Persia. The walls have fresco paintings.
The Mughal Gardens are situated at the back of the Rashtrapati Bhavan, incorporate both Mughal and English landscaping styles and feature a great variety of flowers. The Rashtrapati Bhavan gardens are open to the public in February every year. Main garden: Two channels running North to South and two running East to West divide this garden into a grid of squares. Whereas the energetic fountains rising up to a height of 12 feet (3.7 m) create a soothing murmur that enthralls the visitor, the channels are so tranquil in their movement that they seem frozen.
In the channels at appropriate times of day can be seen reflections of the imposing building and the proud flowers. Terrace garden: There are two longitudinal strips of garden, at a higher level on each side of the Main Garden, forming the Northern and Southern boundaries. The plants grown are the same as in the Main Garden. At the centre of both of the strips is a fountain, which falls inwards, forming a well. On the Western tips are located two gazebos and on the Eastern tips two ornately designed sentry posts.